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新养生之道:像穴居人一样吃喝拉撒

The Paleo Lifestyle: The Way, Way, Way Back

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核心提示:什么才更原始,烈性苹果酒还是草莓玛格丽塔酒?
 

新养生之道:像穴居人一样吃喝拉撒
 




什么才更原始,烈性苹果酒还是草莓玛格丽塔酒?
一个有自尊心的穴居人会在晚上8点戴着琥珀色护目镜查看iPhone吗?
晨间美容又如何?新穴居人用椰子油还是蓖麻油来为女性的面颊增色?
备受关注的旧石器饮食(Paleo diet)是一种饮食养生,借鉴我们穴居人老祖先的精神,食谱上主要是牧草饲喂的肉制品和禽蛋,此外还有新鲜水果、蔬菜和坚果。不了解它的人会觉得和南海岸饮食法,即另一种低卡路里饮食没什么两样,无非是披上一层猛犸象的包装。认为它是一个蓬头垢面、反技术进步,同时又大啖野猪肉的边缘运动的时代,过去了。
最近,旧石器饮食开始迈向主流,不仅是作为一种非常流行的饮食法(根据谷歌时尚热点列表,它是2013年被搜索次数最多的饮食法),也开始成为一种受原始人启发的生活方式,还带来了一个快速增长的产业。
现在,有若干种关于旧石器生活方式的精美杂志;有类似“旧石器f(x)”这样的集会,会上有说旧石器时期语言的人和旧石器时期的物品;还有PrimalCon这样的度假地,提供五天的旧石器时期生活沉浸式体验;有关于旧石器时期的书籍、人偶模型、美容制品、酒类饮料、睡眠眼罩、“大脚怪”鞋子和衣服;更有一大堆贩卖按旧石器时期方式制作的食物,包括杏花马卡龙、麋鹿肉干和无谷即食麦片棒。
当然,旧石器生活方式也少不了名人拥趸。有报道说,梅根·福克斯(Megan Fox)、杰西卡·贝尔(Jessica Biel)和马修·麦康纳(Matthew McConaughey)都深深投入其中。
“祖先的健康原则”是旧石器生活方式拥趸们当中流行的一句话,如今这种方式已经走向大众。对于他们来说,旧石器是一种生活方式,一种哲学光谱,从养育孩子到防晒霜——它可以涵盖生活的方方面面。
“这有点像在《黑客帝国》(The Matrix)中选择红药片还是蓝药片;一旦你选择了红药片,就再也没有回头路了,”俄勒冈州阿什兰德的自由撰稿人凯伦·菲尔普斯(Karen Phels)说,她在几年前开始尝试这种饮食法,不仅令她得以成功减肥,还变成了她的整个生活。“这就像兔子洞,”她说,“你开始思考,‘等一下,如果我可以按照祖先的健康原则去改善饮食,那么我还能按照祖先的健康原则去改善什么?’能改善的东西有很多。”
当然,流行的饮食法早就和类宗教狂热密不可分,这么说吧,只要你见过阿特金斯低碳饮食法(Atkins)的新入门者对着奶酪煎蛋卷自言自语的情形就会明白的。尽管如此,这样的饮食法实践者倾向于把狂热局限在餐桌上。谁听说过阿特金斯低碳睡眠法或者阿特金斯低碳医疗箱呢?
但是对于旧石器生活方式的拥趸们来说,把对旧石器时期的热情仅仅局限在食品方面,只是初级者的做法。
“大多数刚刚接触旧石器饮食法的人都想,‘嘿,这能让我减肥’,”《旧石器杂志》(Paleo Magazine)的编辑和出版人凯恩·克莱迪克特(Cain Credicott)说,这本杂志可以在巴恩斯与诺贝尔书店的收银处买到,就放在《好胃口》(Bon Appétit)旁边。
“现在所有人都意识到,就算你的饮食无可挑剔,但假如你仍然是看完电视凌晨一点上床,又在早晨6点被闹钟唤醒,全身涂满防晒霜,那么就算吃得再好也还是无法获得健康,”克莱迪克特说。
所谓的“穴居人饮食法”(到了今天,假如你还不知道“穴居人饮食法”,那你没准真的住在洞穴里),它的基本理论是:现代人的饮食依赖谷类、淀粉、牛奶和加工糖类,它们并不是人类身体进化过程中所需要的食品,而且造成了广泛传播的“文明病”,比如糖尿病和心脏病等。
所以罗恩·科丹(Loren Cordain)和罗布·伍尔夫(Robb Wolf)等旧石器饮食运动的倡导者鼓吹“野性”的饮食,它主要依照我们旧石器时代的祖先而设计——他们需要四处觅食,还有没学会种植庄稼和食用谷物,更别说吃品客薯片了。
旧石器饮食不乏批评者。科学界无休无止地讨论:有些营养学家反驳说,谷物、牛奶和豆类这些被旧石器饮食严格禁止的食品中包含有益的营养成分,诸如钙质、维生素B、维生素D,抗氧化物和纤维。伊丽莎白·科尔伯特(Elizabeth Kolbert)最近在《纽约客》杂志对这种饮食法进行的实际检测中也指出,偏重肉食的饮食法对环境有极坏的影响。但皈依者们通常会发现保持旧石器生活方式很快就成了他们全天候的职责。
米歇尔·塔姆(Michelle Tam)的经历就是如此,她原本是加利福尼亚州帕罗阿尔托的药剂师,目前在尝试原始人睡眠养生法。
塔姆女士现年40岁,她从四年前开始尝试旧石器饮食法来对抗自己的惰性,以及对玛芬甜点的顽固喜好。但一切并未随她减重几磅而结束,她希望按照祖先的方式来重新安排自己的余生。她辞去了医院的工作,把自己重塑为旧石器时代的玛莎·斯图尔特(Martha Stewart)。她的菜谱博客“Nom Nom Paleo”每天有10万人次访问。她的烹饪书成了畅销书,她还有一个烹饪app,以及人偶模型(奇怪的是,它不是用石头,而是用树脂做成的)。
为了更像旧石器时代的人,塔姆改变了睡眠方式。正如马克·希森(Mark Sisson)在2009年的畅销书《原始蓝图》(The Primal Blueprint)中所写,“‘我们的祖先’日出而作,日落而息”。现代人的睡眠不时被iPad和吉米·法伦(Jimmy Fallon)的深夜秀打断,在原始人心目中这就像是把甜食和软饮当晚饭一样不健康。
所以承认自己迷恋电视的塔姆决定晚八点一过就关掉所有电子设备。如果不得不查看手机,她会带上琥珀镜片护目镜屏蔽蓝光,她认为这种蓝光会干扰她的生物钟。此外,她把卧室布置得和原始岩洞没两样,拿走了所有钟表(她说,由两个小儿子来充当她的闹钟),还装上了遮光窗板。
她的做法有了回报。“我以前羡慕我的两个年幼的儿子头一沾枕头就能睡着,”塔姆说,“一到清晨,他们就从床上跳起来,等不及告诉我们前一天晚上做了什么梦。现在我也能和他们一样了。”
她并不是唯一的受益者。《彭博商业周刊》(Bloomberg Businessweek)去年秋天的报道说,她使用的那种窗板是俄勒冈州波特兰的Indow Windows公司生产的。塔姆女士在Twitter上说:用了该公司的产品后,自己就成了“地球上最快乐的僵尸”。该公司声称,自那以后,公司网站的访问量增加了三倍。
但是从床上爬起来,穴居人的生活方式还没结束。用希森的话说,还要除掉日常生活中“有毒害的东西”,比如早晨的美容工序。维塔·派德拉奇(Vita Pedrazzi)曾是伦敦哈罗德百货分管时装的经理,如今住在开曼群岛,她说,她曾经是美容狂人,就算出去倒垃圾也要化妆,部分是由于对自己的粉刺感到害羞。但原始人的生活方式鼓励她把洗手间里所有含有令人毛骨悚然的化学成分的制品都扔掉,如今她对任何商店里贩卖的美容用品和清洁都采取零容忍态度——连肥皂也不例外。
她的博客名叫“维塔自由生活”,她在上面骄傲地写道:30岁的派德拉奇女士,如今亲手制作自己的美容用品,包括“不使用香波”的洗头方式(用小苏打和苹果醋清洗,再在发梢涂上几滴荷荷巴油作为护发素)、用橄榄油和红糖做成的身体磨砂膏,还有用椰子油和苏打做成的牙膏,并用小块活性炭为牙齿增白。尽管客人们震惊地发现,她的家里连Ajax清洁用品也没有(她的公公看到她用白醋清洗厕所简直吓坏了,赶快跑到杂货店去买来清洁剂),但她看上去宛如脱胎换骨。
“新的自然美容法彻底改变了我的皮肤,我也最终战胜了粉刺,”她说。“我终于自由了。”
很多人还找到办法,在办公室里也能至少保持一点原始世界的样子。一位《旧石器生活方式杂志》(Paleo Lifestyle Magazine)的撰稿人建议,在办公桌抽屉里放一罐初榨椰子油——“如果我下午想吃甜食或者想吃快餐,就吃一匙椰子油。”
所以下班之后,许多人希望能在健身房里也来点原始精神。
交叉健身法(CrossFit)是备受“原始人”们青睐的健身方式,这是一种高强度的健身,强调弓步和波比(burpees)等不需要器械的动作,还要辅以新穴居人们推崇的高蛋白、低卡路里饮食。约翰·杜兰特(John Drant)是“纽约旧石器与纽约大脚怪跑步者”的创始人,他在2013年出版了《旧石器宣言:终生健康的古老智慧》(The Paleo Manifesto: Ancient Wisdom for Lifelong Health)一书,书中说,“其他动物不必‘锻炼’,因为它们不是在玩耍,就是在做生存必须的事情。鸟儿飞翔,鱼儿游泳。”
也就是说,为了保持健康,人类也应该做人类生来自然而然就要做的事——或者说,一万年前自然而然要做的事——攀爬、奔跑、搬东西。并且不做不自然的长时间锻炼。
“进化的健康”的铁杆拥趸们还参加回归自然的健身法,比如一位名叫埃尔文·勒·科赫(Erwan Le Corre)的法国导师创立的MoveNat健身,参加者们要手脚并用地爬山,用石头玩接球游戏,在小溪上架设圆木,练习平衡身体。
还有那些白天要照顾孩子们的人,原始的冲动也闯进了养育儿童的领域。诸如“原始人父母”之类网站倡导不要给孩子吃玉米糖浆,实行“亲密育儿法”,把婴儿悬挂起来,还有让产妇吃胎盘等做法。
信奉旧石器方法的父母们尤其喜爱随意游戏的概念,比如俄勒冈的菲尔普斯女士,她认为“游戏是一切哺乳类动物学习的方式”。
原始人做父母的方式和如今致力于让孩子取得成就的“虎妈”模式截然相反。菲尔普斯没有给五岁的女儿安排大堆提琴课和科学活动,而是在她放学后和她一起去附近泥泞的小溪玩耍。“她喜欢虫子,”菲尔普斯说,“她喜欢泥土,我觉得她可以当个昆虫学家。”
泥巴、岩石、橄榄油浴。从外表看来,你可能会觉得旧石器生活方式意味着满身长毛和自我克制。但信奉旧石器生活方式的人也知道下班后该怎样疯狂一下,尽管从逻辑上说,烈酒本应当是被禁止的(狩猎-采集者似乎不会痛饮烈性威士忌)。但科丹博士的85/15原则(罗恩·科丹提出的一种规则,生活中遵循旧石器原则的饮食与不遵循旧石器原则的饮食应大致保持在85%对15%的比例——译注)提供了弹性空间。
对于那些喜欢喝酒的人来说,啤酒等谷物酿造的酒类是绝对禁止的。但旧石器生活方式的信奉者们乐于对伏特加另眼相看(特别是土豆酿制的伏特加,它不含谷蛋白),以及100%龙舌兰酒(嘿,它可是用仙人掌做的)。
Pinterest网站上有大量旧石器鸡尾酒调制单,比如旧石器草莓代基里酒,由“旧石器女孩厨房”提供。它由有机草莓、冰块、鲜榨橙汁、朗姆酒和蜂蜜制成。听上去和普通代基里酒差不多。
不过,在这种多少需要一点信念的运动中,有时候精神才是最重要的。(更多资讯请关注中国进出口网

The Paleo Lifestyle: The Way, Way, Way Back
 
Which is more primal, hard cider or a strawberry margarita?
Would a self-respecting cave man check his iPhone after 8 p.m., as long as he was wearing amber goggles?
What about that morning beauty regimen? Is coconut oil or castor oil more likely to restore that neo-Neanderthal glow to a woman’s cheek?
To the uninitiated, the much talked about Paleo diet — a nutritional regimen centered around pasture-raised meat, eggs, fresh fruit and vegetables, and nuts, in the spirit of our cave-dwelling forebears — may seem like another low-carb fad, the South Beach diet dressed up in a mammoth hide. But the time has passed when it could be written off as a fringe movement of shaggy-haired Luddites with an outsize taste for wild boar meatloaf.
Lately, Paleo has charged toward the mainstream, not only as a hugely popular diet (it was most-searched diet of 2013, according to the Google Trends Zeitgeist list), but also as a cave-man-inspired lifestyle that has spawned a fast-growing industry.
There are now glossy magazines on the Paleo lifestyle, conferences like Paleo f(x) that feature Paleo speakers and products, and vacation retreats like PrimalCon, billed as a five-day immersion into all things Paleo. There are Paleo books, action figures, beauty products, liquors, sleep masks, “barefoot” shoes and clothing, not to mention a glut of places that sell all manner of Paleo foods, including almond-flower macaroons, elk jerky and grainless granola bars.
And, of course, Paleo has its celebrity followers. Actors like Megan Fox, Jessica Biel and Matthew McConaughey have reportedly taken the plunge.
“Ancestral health,” to use a term popular among Paleo followers, has gone mass. For them, Paleo is a way of life, a philosophical prism that colors everything from child rearing to sunscreen.
“It’s like taking the red pill or the blue pill in ‘The Matrix’; once you take the red pill, there’s no going back,” said Karen Phelps, a freelance writer in Ashland, Ore., referring to her conversion to the diet a few years ago, when a successful weight-loss push ended up becoming a total-life commitment. “It’s a total rabbit hole,” she said. “You start thinking, ‘Wait a minute, if I can fix my diet from ancestral health principles, what else can I fix through ancestral health principles?’ The list is endless.”
Certainly, trendy diets and quasi-religious zeal have long gone hand in hand, a point familiar to anyone who has ever endured a newcomer to, say, Atkins spinning out soliloquies on cheese omelets. Even so, such dieters tend to limit their enthusiasm to what’s on the plate. Who ever heard of an Atkins bedroom or an Atkins medicine cabinet?
But among the Paleo crowd, limiting one’s enthusiasm for Paleo to food is almost a rookie maneuver.
“Most people come to the Paleo diet thinking, ‘Hey, I can lose some weight,’ ” said Cain Credicott, the editor and publisher of Paleo Magazine, which sells at the checkout counter at Barnes & Noble, next to Bon Appétit.
“Everybody recognizes now that if you eat a squeaky clean diet but are still going to bed at 1 a.m. after watching TV, waking up at 6 a.m. with an alarm clock and slathering yourself with sunscreen, it doesn’t matter how good your diet is, you’re not going to be healthy,” Mr. Credicott said.
The basic theory of the so-called cave-man diet (which, at this point, you would virtually have to live in a cave to be unaware of) is that the modern diet, with its reliance on grains, starches, dairy and processed sugar, is not what the human body evolved to thrive on, and has contributed to widespread “diseases of civilization” like diabetes and heart disease.
That is why leaders of the movement like Loren Cordain and Robb Wolf advocate a “wild” diet that falls roughly in line with that of those Paleolithic forager ancestors who had not yet learned to cultivate and eat grain, much less pry the lid off a Pringles can.
Paleo is not without its critics. The science has been endlessly debated: Some nutritionists counter that verboten foods like grains, dairy and beans contain valuable nutrients, such as calcium, vitamins B and D, antioxidants and fiber. Elizabeth Kolbert, in a recent New Yorker road test of the diet, also pointed out that a meat-heavy diet has dire environmental implications. Still, proselytes often find that being Paleo quickly becomes a round-the-clock duty.
That was the experience of Michelle Tam, a former pharmacist in Palo Alto, Calif., who has adopted a primal sleep regimen.
It all started four years ago, when Ms. Tam, now 40, tried the Paleo diet to combat sluggishness and a stubborn muffin-top. But it didn’t end when she shed the extra pounds, as she sought to reorder the rest of her life along those ancestral principles. She quit her hospital job and transformed herself into something of a Martha Stewart of Paleo. Her recipe blog, Nom Nom Paleo, draws more than 100,000 page views daily. And she has a best-selling cookbook, a cooking app and action figure (though, oddly, it’s made of vinyl, not stone).
Ms. Tam also found herself altering her sleep to become more Paleo. As Mark Sisson put it in his seminal 2009 book, “The Primal Blueprint,” “our ancestors’ activity and sleep patterns were shaped by sunrise and sunset.” In the primal mind, the modern sleep ritual, interrupted by iPads and Jimmy Fallon, seems as unhealthy as a dinner of Fiddle Faddle with a Mountain Dew chaser.
That’s why Ms. Tam, a confessed television addict, decided to cut out all electronic devices after 8 p.m. If she has to check her iPhone, she wears amber goggles to block the blue-spectrum light that she believes interferes with her circadian rhythms. Next, she turned her bedroom into the equivalent of a Lascaux cave, removing all clocks (her two young sons serve as her morning alarm, she said) and installing blackout window inserts.
The move paid dividends. “I used to envy how my young two boys would fall asleep almost immediately after their heads hit the pillow,” Ms. Tam said. “At dawn, they’d bound out of bed, eager to tell us about the previous night’s dreams. Now, I sleep like them.”
She is not the only beneficiary. As Bloomberg Businessweek reported last fall, Indow Windows, the Portland, Ore.-based manufacturer of her window inserts, said traffic to its site tripled after Ms. Nam tweeted that she was “the happiest zombie on the planet” thanks to the company’s product.
But the lifestyle does not end when you roll out of bed. For many, the quest to rid one’s daily regimen of “poisonous things,” to use Mr. Sisson’s phrase, includes the morning beauty routine. Vita Pedrazzi, a former fashion manager at Harrods in London who now lives in the Canary Islands, said she used to be the sort of beauty obsessive who would slap on makeup to take out the trash, in part because of her sheepishness over her acne. But when the primal path inspired her to rid her bathroom of any product containing creepy-sounding chemicals, she adopted a zero-tolerance policy to any store-bought beauty product or cleanser — even soap.
As she proudly related on her blog, Vita Lives Free, Ms. Pedrazzi, 30, now makes her own beauty products, including a “no-poo” shampoo method (baking soda and apple cider vinegar, with a few drops of jojoba oil for the tips as a leave-in conditioner), body scrub made from olive oil and brown sugar, and toothpaste made with coconut oil and baking soda, with activated charcoal tablets for whitening. Although houseguests are shocked to find not so much as a canister of Ajax in her house — her horrified father-in-law recently raced out to the drugstore to buy toilet cleaner, instead of her white vinegar solution — she feels transformed.
“The new natural beauty routine totally transformed my skin, and I finally defeated my acne,” she said. “I was finally free.”
As the Paleo day continues, many find a way to keep at least a toe in the primal world at the office. A writer for Paleo Lifestyle Magazine recommends keeping a jar of virgin coconut oil in a desk drawer. (“If I end up getting an afternoon sugar craving, or just feel like I’m in need of a quick snack, I just take out my spoon and eat a glob.”)
That may be one reason so many are looking to blow off some primal steam at the gym after work.
The preferred form of exercise for the Paleo tribe is CrossFit, a high-intensity workout that stresses Cybex-equipment-free motions like lunges and burpees, and the high-protein, low-carb diet of neo-cave men. As John Durant, a founder of Paleo NYC and Barefoot Runners NYC, put it in his 2013 book, “The Paleo Manifesto: Ancient Wisdom for Lifelong Health,” “other animals don’t ‘exercise’ so much as they either play or just do what is required to survive. Birds fly. Fish swim.”
In that spirit, humans are just supposed to do what humans naturally do — or did, 10,000 years ago — to stay fit: Climb. Run around. Hoist things. And never for unnaturally long stretches.
“Evolutionary fitness” die-hards can also partake in back-to-nature workout retreats like MoveNat started by a French exercise guru named Erwan Le Corre, wher participants crawl up hillsides on all fours, play catch with rocks and balance on logs over creeks.
For those who spend their day rearing children, the primal impulse has made major inroads into parenting, too. Websites like The Primal Parent extol corn-syrup-free trick-or-treating, baby slings for “attachment parenting” and placenta-eating for new mothers.
Unstructured play, in particular, has become a cherished concept among Paleo-minded parents like Ms. Phelps, the Oregon devotee, who argued that “play is the method by which all mammals learn.”
Primal parents are the polar opposite of the hyper-achievement-oriented “Tiger Mom” model. Instead of overscheduling her 5-year-old daughter with cello lessons and science fairs, Ms. Phelps prefers to spend hours with her after school playing in a muddy creek near their house. “She loves bugs,” Ms. Phelps said. “She loves dirt. I think she’s going to be an entomologist.”
Mud. Rocks. Olive oil showers. From the outside, it may be easy to conclude that the Paleo lifestyle is all about hair shirts and self-denial. But Paleos, too, know how to rage after the workday is done, even though liquor, logically speaking, should be off limits. (It’s not as if hunter-gatherers were slugging back highballs). Dr. Cordain’s 85/15 rule of compliance allows for wiggle room, after all.
For those looking to raise a glass, anything grain-forward, like beer, is typically out. But Paleos tend to look the other way on vodka (particularly potato vodka, which is free from all associations with gluten) and 100 percent agave tequila (hey, it’s cactus).
Pinterest, in fact, is brimming with Paleo cocktail recipes, like the Paleo Strawberry Daiquiri, courtesy of Paleo Girl’s Kitchen. It is made with organic strawberries, ice, fresh-squeezed orange juice, rum and honey. It sounds pretty much like a regular daiquiri.
In movements that require at least a dash of faith, however, sometimes it’s the spirit that counts.
 
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